Keogh's view on Bailey
His real name was Daniel Julian Bailey. He served in the British Army as Bailey, but went under the name of Beverley in Casement's Irish Brigade. In his statement to the Irish Poice after his arrest, he confirms that he used the name Beverley while serving with the Irish Brigade
His service record and the write up in The 2nd Royal Irish Rifles in the Great War shows a chequered army career
Born St Michan’s, Dublin, in 27 Jan 1887. Son of Daniel Bailey, b. Ireland & Mary Berthelier. Commonly known as Julien. He had two sisters, Mary Jane and Elizabeth. Educated at St Mary’s School, Stanhope Street, and St Vincent de Paul School, Glasnevin, Dublin. Joined the Dublin City RGA Militia. He was an apprentice compositor at Mr John Falconer’s, printers and publishers, 53 Sackville Street, Dublin.
1901 census shows him as a boarder at St. Vincent de Paul School, Prospect Road, Glasnevin, Dublin.
1904 Apr 7. He enlisted in Enlisted in the RIR, his record gives him as a Roman Catholic, blue eyes, brown hair, fair complexion.Roll of Irish Brigade in Zodden confirnms service no. His attestation on enlisting gives that he was 18 on joining and had been born in the Parish of St Michael, Dublin. His trade was a compositor (printer). He was only 5ft 4in, and weighed 112 lbs (ie just on 8stone.
1904 Aug 19. He was soon on his way to Aldershot with Royal Irish Rifles in 1906 where he served at Meerut Station. Deprived six days pay for absence, 5.3.1907.
1907 Mar 8. Sent to India to join 1st RIR 8.3.1907. Appointed unpaid L/Cpl 14.6.1909. In confinement, 15.10.1909, awaiting trial on charges of absenting himself without leave, an act to the prejudice of Good Order and Military Discipline, and losing, by neglect, his equipment and clothing. Convicted, 9.11.1909, given 84 days detention and fined £3. Served 8 years and 357 days, of which 5 years and 328 days were served abroad
1911 Census gives him under Overseas Military. 1st Royal Irish Rifles, C Company. Alexandra barracks, Maymyo, Burma, Rifleman, single, previous trade Compositor.
1913. Jan. He came back to Watford and transferred to the Army Reserve 29 March 1913. He lived at 44 Craven Park, Harlesden, London, for a few months, then went to Canada, returning in October 1913 - in Canada he worked on the Miramichi river in New Brunswick. The Harleden address was the residence of Mrs Katherine E. O’Dea to whom he was engaged. The engagement is difficult to confirm and one should note that her husband had only died 22 Jun 1913. Though he certainly married her in 1917. He was temporarily employed at Paddington Railway Station, from 6 July 1914, loading and unloading vans.
1914 Aug 5. He as mobilised in Belfast to 2nd RIR
1914 Aug 14. Landed with BEF in France 9 days later
1914 Sep 4. Wounded and prisoner of the Germans 3 weeks after that on Sep 4th 1914, and taken to Senelager. He was a Signaller Corporal. He was later transferred to Limburg with the bulk of the Irish POWs. In a POW debrief,
1915 Sep 16. Mrs O’Dea had been listed as his next of kin. The Metropolitan Police made discreet enquiries and reported that she was then residing at 28 Berkhampstead Avenue, Wembley: ‘Mrs O’Dea is a widow, has said that she was educated in Germany; she is described as a very fast woman and whilst she was living at 44 Craven Park was always entertaining soldiers. I have also been informed that Mrs O’Dea has two sons now serving in the British Army.’
1915 Nov 1. Monteith meets Sergt. O'Toole and Bailey at Potsdamer Banhof at 9.30 together with Gafreter Zehusen, one of the interpreters attached to the Brigade. Quinlisk wrote "Monteith's favourite was Bailey, who could twist him round his little finger"
1915 Nov 2. Monteith writes to Casement from Limburg (Monteith had gone there with O'Toole and Bailey) on a suggestion that Sgt Keogh also be sent to Limburg from Zossen to help with recruiting "Regarding Keogh, I am rather in doubt in this matter, I have learned that there are other attraction in Limburg for the Sergeant Major beside recruiting, but he might be able to help things along... up to the present we have little to show for our work, I have interviewed 70 men, about 10 of whom I intend to see again.. the first 25 were inclined to be a bit rusty and insolent ..the men I saw today were of a far better frame of mind ... I think we stand to get 8 or 10 of them
Monteith describes him as an artist of no mean order, who never went out of his way to look for trouble, but never went out of his way to avoid it either. Scouting and signalling lectures were given to the men in Zossen by Sergeant Bailey.
British Intelligence discovered that he had joined the Irish Brigade in Germany. Mrs O’Dea had been listed as his next of kin. The Metropolitan Police made discreet enquiries and reported, 16 September 1915, that she was then residing at 28 Berkhamstead Avenue, Wembley, and they reported: ‘Mrs O’Dea is a widow, said to have been educated in Germany; she is described as a very fast woman and whilst she was living at 44 Craven Park was always entertaining soldiers. I have also been informed that Mrs O’Dea has two sons now serving in the British Army.’
1916 Mar. Rahilly writes At the end of March one of our sergeant's. Bailey, left for a special course of training in Berlin. Monteith went with him.
6902 Pte James Scanlon, a repatriated POW of the Leinster Regt, made a statement, 15 Aug 1916: ‘On one of these occasions when we went to the Brigade’s quarters Bailey was there in his unteroffizier’s uniform. He was actively urging men to join the Brigade and asked me to do so. I called him a traitor, whereupon he got up to strike me, I said “Yes, of course you would hit a wounded man.” He then sat down again … Some time about July 1915 Bailey came to our part of the camp in the same uniform with a belt and a side bayonet. The Irish prisoners crowded round him, and I saw them knock him down and kick him. The Germans came to his rescue and got him away. Several of our men were punished for assaulting Bailey.
U-20 went aground in Danish waters later in 1916 and was scrapped
Reserve-Lieutenant Karl Spindler of the German Navy was due to take the Aud (Libau) and Casement to Ireland but the German officer stated that as "Casement had expressed a very strong objection against accompanying us in the Libau, it was finally decided to place a submarine at his disposal. He had with him two companions, Lieutenant Monteith and the Irish sergeant, Bailey. The latter turned out in the sequel to be a thorough-paced scoundrel. The submarine was to put Casement, with his companions, on board the Libau at a rendezvous in Tralee Bay, and I was then to proceed in under his instructions. "
The Aud in fact arrived in Tralee Bay at the agreed time, but her signals went unanswered. Spindler decided to spent the night hiding behind one of the Magharee Islands. At dawn a ship carrying a pilot flag approached the Aud and much to the German commander's surprise the pilot boat hoisted hoisting the British flag of war. Spindler underwent a formal inspection soon turned into a amicable drinking spree during which Spindler learned that the British were on the look-out for a German cruiser carrying arms for Irish rebels. By then Spindler knew that the mission not only had failed, but that it was betrayed. Later on the same day, Good Friday the Aud was arrested . While being escorted to Cork the crew of the Aud sank the ship, identified themselves as sailors of the German navy and surrendered. In fact he voyage of the Aud was compromised from the very beginning, with German codes having been broken, and agents were reporting the movements of submarines and shipping from both the Baltic and occupied ports. The British Naval Intelligence Division (NID) knew that there was an arms ship on the way, but did not know precisely when. Therefore from mid-March 1916, extra patrols were in place all around the West and South Coasts of Ireland to intercept any suspicious vessels for searching
Casement boarded first the U-20, but it had to turn back with rudder problems and instead was taken on the U-19, commanded by Raimund Weisbach, who had previously served as torpedo officer on U-20 and had launched the torpedo that sank Lusitania. During his brief command of U-19, Weisbach delivered Roger Casement along with Bailey and Monteith to Ballyheige Bay in Ireland in hopes that they would foment an uprising that would divert British Troops to Ireland.
The photo of the boat used was produced at the trial
In his evidence at Casement's trial Bailey said he was taken, with other Irishmen, to the camp at Limburg, where he was well treated for a time: “I saw Sir Roger Casement about April 1915. He spoke to me about joining the Irish Brigade solely for the purpose of fighting for Irish freedom, and I joined so that I could get out of the country, and was made Sergeant straight away.” Bailey went on to say that he was sent to Berlin at the end of March 1916, and, with Monteith, went to a school to get instruction in the use of explosives. After three hours he went to another place in Berlin to get further instruction. On the 11th April 1916 he and Mr Monteith and Sir Roger Casement were driven to the War Office in Berlin and there he was given a railway ticket, and the three of them went to Wilhelmshaven. There they were put on a submarine.
On April 21, 1916, Roger Casement's journey on the German submarine U-19 came to an end. U -19. Failing to find the 'Aud Norge' the submarine landed Casement, Monteith and Bailey by dingy in Ballyheige Bay - two nautical miles from where they finally landed. About 2 a.m., the three men climbed into the small boat for the trip to shore. Their boat capsized before they reached Banna Strand, near Tralee. Monteith helped an exhausted Casement to safety on shore. Leaving Casement at the ruins of McKenna's Fort, Monteith and Bailey headed for Tralee. About 1:30 p.m., Casement was discovered by two Royal Irish Constabulary officers.
Bailey was driven by car to the neighbourhood of Tralee. He was arrested the next day and, on condition that he would be protected, provided selective information about the gun-running plot. He was taken from Spike Island, Cork, under military escort, 6 May, to the Royal Irish Constabulary Depot, Phoenix Park, Dublin. Immediately moved to Scotland Yard and placed in Cannon Row Police Station. Transferred to Wandsworth Detention Barracks the following day.
When the charges were read out at Bow Street, 15 May 1916, Casement, pointing to Bailey, said: ‘Well, that man is innocent. I think the indictment is wrongly drawn against him. Is it within my power to pay for the defence of this man? I wish him to be in every way as well defended as myself, and if he has no means to undertake his defence I am prepared to pay for his.’
Although Bailey appeared at the committal procedings in May, the Crown must have declined to pursue charges against him before the actual Old Baily trial in June, as Casement alone appeared in the dock then.
Their trial took place 26–8 June. Baileys statement at Casement's trial (in full here) After deliberating less than an hour, the jury on 29 June 1916, returned a verdict of guilty in the case of Sir Roger. Bailey then appeared in the dock alone, the Crown offered no evidence, and the jury returned the only verdict open to them under the circumstances - "not guilty", and not guilty in the case of Bailey.
The Attorney General intimated that the charge of treason against Bailey was withdrawn. ‘As he had throughout been but a subordinate, and had a good character in the Army, and having always denied any intention of helping the enemy but took the course he did to get away from captivity in Germany" The Crown entered a nolle prosequi, and he was at once released.’ Bailey's claim that he only joined the Irish Brigade as an opportunity to get back to Ireland was unlikely to say the least, but for no clear reason Attorney General Smith decided not to hang a second traitor.
I found a bizzare story claiming that Bailey made his way back to Zossen, Germany (where the Brigade had been based), where it was claimed that he had a woman waiting for him. In the meantime she had taken up with another man and Bailey, dejected on discovering this, committed suicide. This was not true, but the truth was extraordinary. He in fact did marry a British born widow of German descent, one Katerina Ida Friedrich, born Dec 1865 at London, St James 1a 375. She was Daughter of Johann Fredrich (I believe to be born in Austria) and Mary Bishop. Katerina Friedrich had married and had a family with John Stanislaus O'Dea, and was a widow following O'Dea's death in June 1913.
On release he went to live with Mrs O’Dea but was subject to compulsory retention under the Military Service Act.
It would appear that he then joined the Wiltshires. And by extraordinary good fortune, his service record is one of the few that survived WW2 bombing, but not without showing fire and water damage. Here we can see movement to East Africa with the North Lancs Regiment on 18 Aug, only 2 weeks after Casement's execution on 3rd August.
Given that his trial only finished on 29th June, and Casement was hanged on 3 August, the government moved pretty quickly to transfer him to the Wiltshires. He then had a remarkable series of transfers between regiments, which seems designed to obliterate his past, but without changing his name. His service record shows no sign of his having arrived in a German submarine, or being tried for treeason.
1916 Jul 1. He was transferred to 3rd Wiltshire Regt, 1 July 1916, No. 31447.
1916 Jul 17. Transferred to 3rd Royal North Lancashire Regt, No. 26418. Posted to their 2nd Bn, embarking at Davenport, 19 August 1916. Disembarked at Kilwa, Tanzania, German East Africa, 29 September 1916. Kilwa had just been captured by British naval forces on 7 Sept 1916
1917 Mar 9. Transferred to the RE as a Sapper 272845 and moved to the EEF at Alexandria, 9 March 1917. Employed as a platelayer, WR/143247, RE, in the Railway Operating Division.
1917 Jul?sep. He married the Widow O'Dea (born 1865 as Katerina Ida Friedrich) Marriage of Daniel J Bailey to Katherine E O'Dea at Hendon 3a page 800 in Sept 1917. I am not clear whether Bailey came back from Egypt for his marriage Marriage of Daniel J Bailey to Katherine E O'Dea is recorded at Hendon (3a page 800) in Sept 1917
1919 May 24. Promoted A/Cpl 24 May 1919. Mentioned in General Sir Edmund Allenby’s despatches, London Gazette 5 June 1919, for services during the period from 19 Aug 1918 to 31 Jan 1919. Mentioned in Dispatches by Allenby in London Gazette - Bailey, WR/143247 Spr. D., R.O.D. MID on 5 June 1919.
1919 Sep 6. Embarked for home at Port Said.
1919 Dec 8. Discharged from the RE Transportation Branch.
There is a passenger declaration to Canada for a Daniel Bailey in 1921 - his wife is a Katherina Eda Bailey. He is given as born Dublin, and this is our man. He is not accompanied by his wife but says he intends to live in Canada. He gives a Wembley address for Katherina.
Katherina Eda Bailey travels out in 1922, born London and aged 48. Going to join husband Mr D Bailey in Toronto. Her relative in England is her son Michael O'Dea. Katherina gives her place of birth as England and her birth date as November 4th 1875.
1924 Apr 4. Katherine Eda Bailey dies of cancer at Toronto, Ontario . Her death is registered by her daughter (her father is named as John Frederick born in England on the death cert).
There's a marriage for Kathleen Henrietta O'Dea, 24, daughter of John O'Dea and Catharine Frederick who married William John Featherstone, 36, son of Richard Featherstone and Julia Daley on 3 Jan 1924 in Toronto. One of the witnesses was Josephine O'Dea.
1926 March 26. There follows a marriage in Ontario in 1926, Julien Daniel Bailey, born Ireland 1887 and a widower marrying a Clara Nash, aged 18. Julien Daniel Bailey, 39, widower, painter, Ireland, 260 George St., s/o Daniel Bailey, b. Ireland & Mary Berthelier, married Clara Nash, 18, Toronto, King Edward Apts - Jarvis St., d/o George Nash, b. England & Martha Stokes, witn: Arthur Nash of 541 Dundas St. East & Josephine O'Reilly of 177 McPherson Ave.
1926 May 29. Born Edwin Eric Julien Bailey, the only child of hs marriage to Clara Nash. Edwin Bailey died 11 Jul 1997 in Colorado Springs, El Paso, Colorado, USA. He had a family of 6 girls and a boy.
1932 Oct 1. Passenger manifest for the Athenia, disembarking Montreal–Liverpool, shows him as a compositor. Address in UK while there was 18b Rosefield Road, Smethwich, Staffordshire.
Julian Bailey was living in Toronto up to the early 50's with his son - his son was in the American military - Julien then moved to around Barrie, Ontario and worked as a Commissionaire at Camp Borden,. Corps of Commissionnaires in Ottawa may have a record of his service in the '50's or '60s at Camp Borden - Camp Borden is a military base just north of Barrie Ontario which is only about 60 miles (100 km) from Toronto. I contacted them, but they did not afford me the courtesy of a reply.
1968 Jan 19. Died in Ontario, Canada
File ref: 339/26418; police file: MEPO 2/10668; Irish Brigade papers: WO141/9.
The Irish Brigade in Germany